What Is Investment Multiplier?

Are you curious to know what is investment multiplier? You have come to the right place as I am going to tell you everything about investment multiplier in a very simple explanation. Without further discussion let’s begin to know what is investment multiplier?

In the world of economics, the investment multiplier is a concept that has a profound impact on a nation’s economic growth and prosperity. It is a measure of the magnifying effect of initial investment on the overall economy. In this blog post, we will explore what the investment multiplier is, how it works, and its significance in understanding the dynamics of economic expansion.

What Is Investment Multiplier?

The investment multiplier is a fundamental concept in macroeconomics that illustrates the relationship between initial changes in investment and the resulting change in a country’s national income or gross domestic product (GDP). It is a tool used to assess the ripple effect of an increase or decrease in investment on the overall economy.

Key Components Of The Investment Multiplier:

  1. Initial Investment: The investment multiplier begins with an initial injection of investment into the economy. This could be in the form of government spending, private sector investments, or foreign investments.
  2. Marginal Propensity to Consume (MPC): The MPC represents the fraction of additional income that individuals or households choose to spend rather than save. It is a key determinant in how the investment multiplier operates.
  3. Multiplier Effect: The multiplier effect is the process through which the initial increase in investment leads to a more significant increase in national income. It occurs because the additional income generated by the initial investment is spent by individuals and businesses, leading to increased economic activity.

The Investment Multiplier Formula:

The investment multiplier is calculated using the following formula:

Investment Multiplier = 1 / (1 – MPC)


MPC (Marginal Propensity to Consume) is the fraction of additional income spent.

How The Investment Multiplier Works?

Let’s illustrate the concept of the investment multiplier with an example:

Imagine the government decides to invest $1 million in infrastructure projects. This initial investment becomes income for construction workers, engineers, and suppliers. These individuals and businesses, in turn, spend a portion of their additional income on goods and services, creating further income for others. This process continues, with each round of spending leading to additional rounds of income generation.

Here’s How It Works Step By Step:

  1. The government invests $1 million, increasing national income by $1 million.
  2. If the MPC is 0.8 (indicating that people spend 80% of their additional income), individuals and businesses will spend $800,000 of the $1 million.
  3. This $800,000 becomes income for others, leading to another round of spending, with 80% of it being spent.
  4. The process continues, and with each round, the amount spent decreases as per the MPC.
  5. The total increase in national income can be calculated using the investment multiplier formula.

Significance Of The Investment Multiplier

  1. Economic Growth: The investment multiplier demonstrates how an initial increase in investment can lead to a more substantial increase in GDP. It highlights the role of investment in stimulating economic growth.
  2. Policy Implications: Governments and policymakers use the investment multiplier to assess the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the economy. By understanding how changes in investment can influence GDP, they can make informed decisions to stabilize or stimulate economic activity.
  3. Business Decisions: Businesses also consider the investment multiplier when making investment decisions. They anticipate the potential for increased demand and economic expansion resulting from their investments.
  4. Real-World Applications: The investment multiplier has practical applications in real-world scenarios, such as economic recovery plans, infrastructure projects, and stimulus packages. It helps gauge the effectiveness of these initiatives.


The investment multiplier is a critical concept in economics, shedding light on the relationship between investment and economic growth. It underscores the significance of initial investment in driving economic activity and increasing national income. By understanding the investment multiplier, governments, policymakers, and businesses can make informed decisions that contribute to economic prosperity and stability.

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What Is Investment Multiplier With Example?

Investment multiplier = 1 / MPS = 1 / 0.2 = 5

We know that, investment multiplier = (change in income) / (change in investment). We also know that investment multiplier = 1 / MPS. As shown by this calculation, an initial investment of Rs. 500 crore will generate an income of Rs.

What Is Investment Multiplier And Formula?

The ratio of the total increment in equilibrium value of final goods output to the initial increment in autonomous expenditure is called investment multiplier. The Investment Multiplier= ∆Y/ ∆I = I / I-C = I / F.

What Do You Mean By Investment Multiplier Class 12?

Investment multiplier refers to the number of time by which the increase in output or income exceeds the increase in investment. It is measured as the ratio between change in income and change in investment.

What Is Investment Multiplier Also Called?

Therefore, whereas Kahn’s multiplier is known as ’employment multiplier’, Keynes’ multiplier is known as investment or income multiplier. The essence of multiplier is that total increase in income, output or employment is manifold the original increase in investment.

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